Religious Expression in Public Schools - Dept. of Education & Legal Docs
Legal Memo on Graduation Prayers in Public Schools. Liberty Counsel, www.lc.org, 2005-2006. Clarification of laws on what is prohibited and permitted
regarding prayers or religious messages during public school graduation ceremonies. Four legal models/options are provided.
Legal Memo About Public Christmas Celebrations
. Liberty Counsel, www.lc.org. Guidelines for public officials and schools regarding religious holidays and celebrations in public schools.
Secretary Paige's Letter and Guidance on Constitutionally Protected Prayer
in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools. Religion and Public Schools, U.
S. Department of Education, February 7, 2003.
National Executive Actions
Bush, George W. Based on a bill signed in December 2004, President Bush, in 2006, has proclaimed every September 17 as
Constitution Day and Citizenship Day and September 17-23 as Constitution Week, passed
by joint resolution of Congress, for the nation to celebrate the birth of the nation's government through the signing
of the Constitution of 1787 and to reflect "on the significance of the Constitution and the blessings of liberty that
this document helps to secure." Citizenship Day honors those who, throughout history, have defended this
liberty and reaffirms our nation's commitment to freedom and to "instilling in America's next generation the values that make our country great." See 2006 Proclamation and Citizenship Day and Constitution Week Proclamation
Bush, George W. President George Bush has proclaimed September 11 as Patriot Day, a day of remembrance
, passed by joint resolution of Congress, to honor the victims of the September 11 terrorist
attacks and the bravery of citizens who risked their lives to save other fellow citizens in the aftermath of the event. Patriot Day Proclamation (2004).
Bush. George W. President Bush's Loyalty Day proclamation, supported by Congress, designates May 1 as
Loyalty Day which encourages citizens to support our military and their families, serve one another and our communities through volunteering, and learn about and teach young people about our
nation's history and values.
Loyalty Day Proclamation (2004).
Bush, George W. "President Unveils Nation's Founding Documents at National Archives." Remarks by
the President at the Rededication of the National Archives. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/09/20030917-2.html> (17 September 2003). President Bush unveiled the nation's
founding documents--the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights--the ideals of which
have defined America's purposes in the world, overcome tyranny, inspired hope, and turned the creative gifts of men and women to pursuits of peace.
Bush, George W. "President Introduces History & Civic Education Initiatives." Remarks of the President on
Teaching American History and Civic Education Initiative. White House. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/09/20020917-1.html> (17 September 2002). President Bush cites the importance of
teaching history in the classroom and ways to "improve students' knowledge of American history, increase their civic involvement, and deepen their love for our great country."
National Court Rulings
Federal Court Rejects Separation of Church and State (Decision binding in Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, and
Tennessee), (12/20/05). In an astounding return to judicial interpretation of the actual text of the United States
Constitution, a unanimous panel of the 6th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals has issued an historic decision
declaring that "the First Amendment does not demand a wall of separation between church and state." In
upholding a Kentucky county's right to display the Ten Commandments, the panel called the American Civil
Liberties Union's repeated claims to the contrary "extra-constitutional." (Family Policy Network) U. S. Court of Appeals Decision, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit <http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/internet/index.htm>.
For related information, see Family Policy Network and Cincinnati Enquirer.
ACLU vs. Mercer County, Kentucky. U. S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, (12/20/05). The Sixth Circuit
Court of Appeals issues decision declaring that "the First Amendment does not demand a separation between church and state." The court
upheld a Kentucky county's right to display the Ten Commandments and called the American Civil Liberties Union's repeated demands for separation "extra-constitutional." Circuit Judge
Richard Suhrheinrich wrote in the unanimous decision: "The First Amendment does not demand a wall of
separation between church and state. Our nation's history is replete with governmental acknowledgement and in some cases, accommodation of religion." U. S. Court of Appeals Decision, U. S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit <http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov>.
Congressional House Resolution 2336, 108th Congress (June 4, 2003). Authors: Petri, Rahall, Dreier, Wicker, and Garrett.
To amend Higher Education Act to establish and strengthen post-secondary programs and courses in subjects of traditional American history, free institutions, and Western civilization. The
purpose of this act is to promote and sustain post-secondary academic centers, institutes, and programs that
offer undergraduate and graduate courses, support research, and develop teaching materials for the purpose of
developing and imparting a knowledge of traditional American history, the American founding, the history and
nature of, and threats to, free institutions, or of the nature, history and achievements of Western Civilization,
particularly for undergraduate students in teacher education, K-12 teachers in related subject areas, and graduate students and post-secondary faculty who teach in related subject areas.
Congressional House Bill SF0139. 83rd Minnesota Legislature (2003). Author: Bachmann. Action:
01/27/2003. "American Heritage Education in Minnesota Public Schools Act" requiring school districts to
develop and establish policies for grade level instruction to assure student access to founding documents of the country and the state pertinent to understanding the principles, character and world
view of the founders; requiring school districts to permit principals or teachers to post the documents and
prohibiting districts from limiting or restraining instruction in American or Minnesota state history or heritage
based on religious references in documents, writings, speeches, proclamations or records, requiring use of the
materials for educational purposes; authorizing students to voluntarily choose to read, write, share, report or otherwise study topics religious in nature under certain conditions.
Congressional House Resolution 366 / Senate Resolution 129. (June 29, 2000, January 24, 2000/July 10, 2000). 106th Congress, Second Session. House of Representatives, June 29, 2000.
Expressing the sense of the Congress regarding the importance and value of education in United States history. The resolution cites the importance of civic education
to insure that democracy is sustained in future generations. It cites the danger that in today's schools and universities students are not being taught American history and/or are
losing America's civic memory. The resolution resolves to recognize that historical illiteracy is a serious problem
, colleges/universities should add U. S. history to their curricula, state officials should review and promote such
curricula, parents should encourage their children to select schools requiring U. S. history, students should
choose to take U. S. history required or not, and educators of all levels should make efforts to bolster knowledge of U. S. history in students.
Texas Executive Action, Rulings, and Legislation
Texas House Bill 3678. 80th Texas Legislature (2007). Author: Howard, Chisum. Signed into law by Gov. Perry on June 11, 2007.
Religious Viewpoint Anti-Discrimination Act (RVAA) / Schoolchildren's Religious Liberties Act. This bill requires a school district to adopt and implement a policy that provides for a
limited public forum and voluntary student expression of religious viewpoints at school events and graduation ceremonies, in class assignments, and in noncurricular school groups and activities
. The bill requires the district to treat voluntary student religious expression on an otherwise permissible subject in the
same manner as the expression of a secular or other viewpoint and prohibits the district from discriminating
against a student based on his or her expressed religious viewpoint. The district policy must ensure that a
student speaker does not engage in obscene or indecent speech and provide a disclaimer that a student's
speech is not endorsed or sponsored by the district. The bill provides a model policy that, if adopted, would place
the district in compliance with requirements. The bill takes effect for the 2007-2008 school year. (Texas Legislature Online)
Texas House Bill 1287. 80th Texas Legislature (2007). Author: Chisum. Signed into law by Gov. Perry. This bill
authorizes school districts to offer elective high school courses on the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, for historical and literary value
, if 15 or more students register for the course. The bill requires a course to follow federal and state law and guidelines to maintain religious neutrality and accommodate students'
diverse religious views, traditions, and perspectives. The State Board of Education must submit proposed
essential knowledge and skills for the course to the attorney general for approval before adopting rules for offering
the course to ensure that it complies with the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The bill takes effect on
June 15, 2007. The Supreme Court has ruled that elective Bible courses in public schools is constitutional. (Texas Legislature Online)
Texas House Bill 219. 78th Texas Legislature (2003). Author: Hope. Signed into law by Gov. Perry. Statute
amended or added: Adds section 1.004, Education Code. This bill authorizes a public school or institution of higher education to display the national motto "In God We Trust"
in each classroom, auditorium, or cafeteria.
Texas House Bill 319. 78th Texas Legislature (2003). Author: Grusendorf. Signed into law by Gov. Perry. Last
Action: 05/20/2003 E Effective on 9/1/03. Statute amended or added: Adds section 4.001(b), education code.
Relating to the objectives of public education. This bill adds an objective of public education requiring that
educators prepare students in the areas of state and national heritage, active citizenship, and free enterprise.
Texas House Bill 1776, 78th Texas Legislature (2003). Author: Hughes et al. Sponsor: Nelson. Signed into law
by Gov. Perry. Last Action: 06/20/2003 E Effective immediately. Relating to Celebrate Freedom Week and to certain instruction in social studies classes in public schools.
Celebrate Freedom Week, designated the week of November 11 in public schools, encourages appropriate instruction, as determined by each school
district, in each social studies class. Instruction should include study of the intent, meaning, and importance of
the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical context.
Texas Senate Bill 83. 78th Texas Legislature (2003). Author: Wentworth. Sponsor: Branch. Signed into law
by Gov. Perry. Last Action: 05/28/2003 E Effective on 9/1/03 (2003-04 school year). Statute amended or added: section 25.082, education code.
Relating to the pledges of allegiance to the United States and Texas flags and to observance of one minute of silence in public schools. This bill directs school boards to
require students to recite the pledges to the United States and Texas flags once each school day. A district
shall excuse a student from reciting a pledge on request of the student's parents or guardian. The legislation
also directs school boards to provide for a minute of silence following the pledges during which a student may
reflect, pray, meditate, or engage in another silent activity that is not distracting to other students. School
employees are required to ensure that students remain silent and do not distract other students. Change from
current law: Recitation of pledges is not currently addressed at this time. Current statute authorizes but does
not require school boards to provide for a period of silence at the beginning of the school day during which
students may reflect or meditate. Action required: Implement requirements for recitation of pledges to the U. S. and Texas flags each school day followed by a minute of silence.
Texas Education Code 28.002 (h). Texas Legislature (1995). Subtitle F. Curriculum, Programs, and Services.
Chapter 28. Courses of Study; Advancement. Subchapter A. Essential Knowledge and Skills, Curriculum.
The state legislature instructed the state board of education to uphold the law that United States and
Texas history should be regular subject matter and textbook material in order to prepare students as citizens in a democracy:
"(h) The State Board of Education and each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular
subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks. A primary purpose of the public school
curriculum is to prepare thoughtful, active citizens who understand the importance of patriotism and can function
productively in a free enterprise society with appreciation for the basic democratic values of our state and national heritage."
Barton, David. Original Intent. Aledo, TX: Wallbuilders Press, 1999.
Barton, David. The Myth of Separation. Aledo, TX: Wallbuilders Press, 1989.
Benet, Stephen V. A Book of Americans. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1933. (Poetry about American
Bennett, William J. The De-Valuing of America. New York: Summit Books, 1992.
Bork, Robert H. Slouching Towards Gomorrah. New York: Regan Books, 1996.
Cheney, Lynne V. Telling the Truth: Why Our Culture and Our Country Have Stopped Making Sense--And What
We Can Do About It. New York: Touchstone Books, 1996.
Crismier, Charles. Preserve Us a Nation: Returning to Our Historical and Biblical Roots. Gresham, OR: Vision
Durant, Will and Ariel Durant. The Lessons of History. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968.
Evans, M. Stanton. The Theme is Freedom. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 1994.
Eberly, Don, E., ed. Building a Community of Citizens. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994.
Elson, Henry William. History of the United States of America. New York: MacMillan Company, 1904. www.usahistory.info. Transcribed by Kathy Leigh.
Federer, William J. America's God and Country. Fame, 1996.
Geyer, Georgie Anne. Americans No More: The Death of Citizenship. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1996
Graham, Hugh, comp. Great American Stories, Poems, & Essays: 165 Stirring Selections from our Nation's
Greatest Writers, Thinkers, Statesmen, and Heroes. Secaucus, NJ: Spencer Press, 1956.
Hamlin, Ken. Pick A Better Country: An Unassuming Colored Guy Speaks His Mind About America. New
York: Touchstone Books, 1997.
Hemrick, Eugene F. One Nation Under God: Religious Symbols, Quotes, and Images in Our Nation's Capital.
Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2001.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr. The Schools We Need—And Why We Don't Have Them. New York: Doubleday, 1996.
Johnson, William Jackson. George Washington, the Christian. New York: Abingdon Press, 1919.
Lapin, Rabbi Daniel. America's Real War. Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, Inc., 1999.
Mayer, David N. The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson. University Press of Virginia, 1994.
McDonald, Forrest. E Pluribus Unum. 2nd ed. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1979.
Muzzey, David Saville. American History. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1911. Google book search, http://books.google.com.
Olasky, Marvin. The American Leadership Tradition. New York: Free Press, 1999.
Podhoretz, Norman. My Love Affair With America. New York: Free Press, 2000.
Potts, Jody. Adventure Tales of America: An Illustrated History of the United States. Dallas: Signal Media,
Ravitch, Diane. Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000.
Ravitch, Diane. The Schools We Deserve: Reflections of the Educational Crises of Our Time. New York:
Basic Books, 1987.
Ravitch, Diane. The Schools We Deserve. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
Roche III, George Charles. Legacy of Freedom. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale College, 1973.
Schlesinger, Arthur M. The Disuniting of America: Reflecting on a Multicultural Society. New York: W. W.
Norton & Co., 1991.
Skousen, W. Cleon. The Five Thousand Year Leap: The 28 Great Ideas That Are Changing the World.
Washington, DC: National Center for Constitutional Studies, 1981.
Skousen, W. Cleon. The Substance and Meaning of the Constitution. Washington, DC: National Center for
Constitutional Studies, 1985.
Skousen, W. Cleon. The Making of America. Washington, DC: National Center for Constitutional Studies,
Sowell, Thomas. Inside American Education: The Decline, The Deception, The Dogmas. New York: Free
Toqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. 1835, 1840. 12th ed. 2 vols. New York: Vintage Books, 1945.
Wills, Garry. Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. Mariner Books, 2002.
Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic: 1776-1787. New York: W. W. Norton, 1969.
Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: Random House, 1993.
Articles / Essays / Presentations
Archibald, George. "'Amnesia' to History Is Called Threat to Liberty." Washington Times, 21 May 2003.
Archibald, George. "Dumbing Down, PC Distort U. S. History, Critics Say." Washington Times, 5-11 April 2004.
Archibald, George. "Ignorance of U. S. History Is Called Threat to Security." Washington Times, 14-20 April
Associated Press, FOX News. "Public Schools Fail to Teach History, Study Charges." 9 September 2003, www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,96865,00.html. The article states, "[The Albert Shanker Institute]
report contends students get a distorted account that their country is irredeemably flawed.... The new report
says recent studies of text books confirm a 'strong negative bias' about the story of America."
Bay, Austin. "Proud Colors: A Creaking Pulley and An Honored Flag." Houston Chronicle, 13 June 1999.
"Beavis and George Washington." Conservative Chronicle, 17 July 2000. A report called "Losing America's
Memory: Historical Illiteracy in the 21st Century" released by the nonprofit group advocating liberal arts
education, American Council of Trustees and Alumni, shows that over half of the 556 randomly selected seniors at elite universities who took a test on American historical facts did not pass.
Beichman, Arnold. "Big why of anti-Americanism." Washington Times, October 2004.
Billups, Andrea. "Educational Policy Leaders Urge Better Civics Education." Washington Times, 16 May 2000.
Boychuk, Ben. "Without Understanding Civics, Freedom Dies." Investor's Business Daily, 24 November 1999.
Boychuk states, "'In no country,' wrote Noah Webster, 'is education so general--in no country, have the body of
the people such knowledge of the rights of men and the principles of government. This knowledge, joined with a
keen sense of liberty and a watchful jealousy, will guard our constitutions.' Today, America's children are barely acquainted with their country, or the principles on which it was founded."
Broder, David S. "Fresh Lessons for this Presidents Day." Houston Chronicle, 17 February 2003.
Cabranes, Jose' A. "Our Common Ground." Wall Street Journal, 9 June 1995.
Charen, Mona. "Is patriotism out?" Conservative Chronicle, 12 July 2000. This article reviews the book, My Love
Affair With America, by Norman Podhoretz, which explores Pohoretz's Jewish immigrant perspective, both
personal and intellectual, of America and how experiences and people in this country have effected him and changed his life.
Charen, Mona. "Losing our history means losing our nation." Conservative Chronicle. This article discusses the
lack of American history and civic education in American schools, citing the need for such knowledge of ideals in
order to establish the cohesive bond among citizens which makes them Americans. National Endowment for the
Humanities (NEH) is sponsoring a grant to improve the teaching of American history and to spur many colleges to reinstate history requirements into their curriculums.
Coghlan, Kelly J. "Those Dangerous Student Prayers." St. Mary's Law Journal, v32,n4 (2001): 809-880. "Is
there danger in allowing genuinely voluntary, faith-based speech to coexist in public schools on an equal playing
field with secular speech addressing similar subjects?" (p. 811). This article sets forth a framework to address
such legal questions, provides a historical review of faith-based expression within government forums, reviews
judicial development and application of the First Amendment to faith-based matters prior to the Santa Fe decision
, analyzes the Santa Fe decision and the guidance it offers regarding school prayer and faith-based issues, and sets forth new student speaker policies to comply with Santa Fe. (p. 812)
"College Seniors Fail Test On U. S. History." Houston Chronicle, 28 June 2000.
Cooper, Kenneth J. "Students Fall Short In Civics Knowledge, Tests Find." Houston Chronicle, 19 November 1999.
Cornell, George W. "Nation's Birth Had Religious Roots." Houston Chronicle, 4 July 1987.
Desai, Nicholas. "The Charge of the Academy." The Dartmouth Review, 7 October 2005. In response to attacks
on remarks made by the college's student body president about Jesus during a Freshman convocation, Desai
affirms the right to free speech and the role of the university as a forum to explore and contend with important philosophical issues. <http://www.dartreview.com/archives/2005/10/07/the_charge_of_the_academy.php>
Dionne E. J., Jr. "Country's Civics Education In A Sorry State." Conservative Chronicle, 24 November 1999.
Duff, Anna Bray. "Students Flunk Their Civics Test." Investor's Business Daily, 6 December 1999.
Feder, Don. "America's Founding Fathers Were Men of Firm Faith." Colorado Springs, February 1993.
Feder, Don. "America was always a lost cause." Conservative Chronicle, 12 July 2000. Editorial reviews the
movie, The Patriot, and how it reflects the fact that the fight for independence, the civil war, the Cold War, and
others have all been causes nearly lost to overwhelming odds many times but, ultimately, have prevailed. The
modern American cause, thus, will prevail if we stand for it as Americans have done in the past.
Feder, Don. "For Public Education--America Is History." Conservative Chronicle, 27 May 2002. Feder states,
"The recently released survey of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (known as the nation's report
card), shows nearly 60 percent of high-school seniors lack even a basic knowledge of U. S. history."
Feder, Don. "Pilgrims Understood Real Source of Security." Conservative Chronicle, 21 November 2001.
Feder, Don. "What it means to be an American." Conservative Chronicle, 31 May 1999. Editorial offers a
checklist of how the author as an American thinks, what he holds dear, what he remembers, what he does for the country.
Fields, Suzanne. "Dawning of a new patriotic era in America." Washington Times, 21 April 2003, commentary.
With the Vietnam Era past, the new touchstone for patriotism has become terrorism, and, in this reality,
patriotism has taken on new meaning and value among a new generation of young people in spite of their education. Nonetheless, the need for education in civic values is greater than ever before.
Fields, Suzanne. "'Losing America's Memory'." Washington Times, 24-30 July 2000, commentary. Citing the
report by the American Council of Trustees and Alumni in which students performed poorly on a test of basic
American historical facts, Field asserts, "An Appreciation for history once was considered indispensable to a
democracy" but nowadays is lost as seen in many universities which do not require a course in American history.
Fields, Suzanne. "Raising a Generation of Americans Ignorant of Their Past." Washington Times, 2 June 2002.
Finn, Chester E., Jr. Teachers, Terrorists, and Tolerance. Observations: Commentary, December 2001.
Flora, James. "The Republic Won't Run On Ignorance." A Speech by James Flora, 1988 George Washington
Honor Medial Recipient. New Holstein, WI. Citing a Gallup sample of the lack of knowledge of American history
among 17- and 18- year olds, Flora talks about the need to be aware of democratic principles and the role of schools in educating students.
Fonte, John. "How to Make An American." The American Enterprise, Sept 2004, vol. 15, no. 6.
"Freedom: Many More People Free Today Than 30 Years Ago." Houston Chronicle, 1 January 2003.
Geyer, Georgie Anne. "Time to Refresh Our National Identity." Washington Times, 29 May 29 - June 4, 2000.
Glentzer, Molly. "First among America's great malls." Destination Philadelphia, Houston Chronicle, 19
September 2004. Independence Mall and other historically significant sites such as the Liberty Bell are located
in downtown Philadelphia where America's Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal periods in history are preserved.
Glentzer, Molly. "Giving history a whiz-bang appeal." Destination Philadelphia, Houston Chronicle, 19
September 2004. The National Constitution Center in Philadelphia houses words, pictures, and interactive exhibits that bring the U. S. Constitution to life.
Graglia, Lino A. "Who Killed the Constitution?" Imprimis, Hilldale College, Michigan, May 1988, vol. 17, no. 5.
Greenberg, Paul. "The Fourth of July is the American Idea." Washington __, 1996.
Hanson, Victor Davis. "The problem, America, with never looking back." Outlook, B11, Houston Chronicle, 11
Higgins, Sean. "Is Conventional Wisdom Wise? Power of Words: Thomas Hobbes used his writing to break
new political ground." Investor's Business Daily, 21 February 2003, sec. A, p. 3. Higgins offers an overview of
the contributions made by Thomas Hobbes in 17th century England to political, philosophical, and religious
thought through his writings. Risking charges of treason and heresy, Hobbes nevertheless continued through his
life to write on and stand for what he believed in and consequently to lay the foundations "for most of the
concepts of modern constitutional democracy: equality before the law, the social contract between the state and
people, and religious tolerance." After Hobbes, no English language inquiry was untouchable.
"History of 'In God We Trust.'" United States Department of Treasury. <http://www.ustreas.gov/education/fact
Johnson, Jean Nash. "Oh Say, Can You Sing? You may know the songs but not the stories behind them.
Here's a key to five patriotic favorites." Dallas Morning News, 5 October 2001, sec. C, p. 12. This article gives
background of songwriters, contexts, interesting facts, and significances of the songs, 'God Bless America', 'America (My Country Tis' of Thee)', 'Star Spangled Banner', and 'America the Beautiful'.
Kagan, Donald. "Why Western History Matters." Wall Street Journal, 28 December 1994.
Khan, Suhail. "Defending the Dream." Washington Times, 3-9 March 2003.
Landers, Ann. "Declaration Signers Sacrificed For All." 4 July 2000.
Lapin, Rabbi Daniel. "America's War of Values: Unity As A Reward, Rather Than As A Goal." Americans For
An Informed Public, March 1999. Nothing has the ability to unify people as much as a common devotion to God. Unity is God's ultimate reward for the nation that adheres to His values.
Leo, John. "C Is For Character." On Society, U. S. News & World Report, 15 November 1999. Gallup finds over
90 percent poll support for stressing honesty and other values in schools.
London, Herbert. "Phasing Out Western Civilization." Human Events, 12 June 2002.
The Lone Star Foundation. "Texas State Board Thwarts Texas Education Agency's Effort to Remove Patriotism
From Textbook Rules." 20 November 2005.
"Many More People Free Today Than 30 Years Ago." Houston Chronicle, 1 January 2003.
Markley, Melanie. "Legislation Pledges To Teach Kids Patriotism." Houston Chronicle, 5 April 2001.
Mink, Michael. "Abe Lincoln: Freedom's Torchbearer. Focus on Vision: 16th president's tough stance helped
preserve the nation." Investor's Business Daily, 19 February 2003. This article outlines the beliefs, character,
initiatives, and contributions of Lincoln regarding issues of slavery, the civil war, his law career, and the Emancipation Proclamation.
Mink, Michael. "Founding Father's Right Touch: Thomas Jefferson Topped His Works With Declaration of
Independence." Investor's Business Daily, 7 July 2003.
Noonan, Peggy. "Post-Patriotic America: Why Aren't We Taught Patriotism Today?" Americans For An
Informed Public, April 1999.
Patton, Judd W. "Our Founding Fathers Did Not Believe in 'Separation of Church and State.'" Bottom Line
Quarterly, Entrepreneurial Leadership Center, Bellevue University, Nebraska, Fall 1994.
"Public Schools Fail to Teach History, Study Charges." (Associated Press) Fox News Channel, 9 September
2003. This article discusses a recent report, "Education for Democracy," produced by the nonpartisan Albert
Shanker Institute, that aims to "strengthen the nation's grasp of its own past and present." Drawing praise from
groups across the political spectrum, the report, based on textbook studies, research by authors, and other
reviews, says students in public schools are getting a negatively-biased view of America. It calls for a more
positive, balanced tone of the country as the first modern democracy and of American Heritage.
"Questionable Declaration." Human Events, 19 November 1999.
Reinert, Patty. "What it means to be an American: A New Test For Citizenship Will Stress Concepts of Our
History--Not Dates, Names." Houston Chronicle, 1 December 2006.
Relin, David Oliver (as told to). "Why I Came to America: Freedom is A Wonderful Thing." Parade, Houston
Chronicle, 2 July 2006.
Richardson, Valerie. "Colorado board endorses motto 'In God We Trust.'" Washington Times. The Colorado
Board of Education voted to urge schools to display the national motto to counter the secularization of public education.
Riley, Richard W., Secretary, Education. Letter addressing Religious Expression in Public Schools, United
States Department of Education.
Riner, Noah. "Remarks by Student Body President Noah Riner at Convocation Sept. 20, 2005." Dartmouth News. <http://www.dartmouth.edu/~news/releases/2005/09/20c.html> (20 September 2005). During the
Freshman Convocation at Dartmouth College, Student Body President Noah Riner spoke to the class about the
need not only to gain an education and intelligence but also the need for students, as all mankind, to value and
gain character. He echoes Horace Mann, known as the father of American public education: "Are we equally
sure that schools are forming the character of the rising generation upon the everlasting principles of duty and
humanity? Are children so educated that when they grow up they will make better leaders or only grander
savages? However loftily the intellect of man may have been gifted, however skillfully it may have been trained, if
it be not guided by a sense of justice, a love of mankind and a devotion to duty, its possessor is only a more
dangerous barbarian." Riner culminates with a message about the character of Jesus and the need for salvation
from sin. While some students opposed Riner's message because of its Biblical content, many others cited
Riner's right to free speech among many viewpoints and the crucial role of the university (as an educational
institution) as a place to explore and contend with such important, philosophical questions. See
"The Charge of the Academy" by Nicholas Desai, The Dartmouth Review (Oct 7, 2005)
Robinson, Matthew. "No Knowledge, No Freedom: Disquieting Results of New Study of Elite College Students."
American Scene, Human Events, 30 March 2000. Robinson states, "A new study by the American Council of
Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) finds that the disease afflicting education reaches the nation's most elite colleges
and universities. ...The danger is that they will be hobbled citizens unable to understand, defend or promote the
constitutional principles and framework that make freedom a possibility in the first place."
Safire, William. "New ears to hear words of dedication." Houston Chronicle, 10 September 2002. The governor
of New York commemorates September 11 by repeating Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, showing how "national spirit rose from the ashes of destruction."
Sanoff, Alvin P. et al. "What Americans Should Know." U. S. News & World Report. 28 September 1987.
Sanoff states, "In recent years, educators have lost the conviction that there are certain things citizens should
know. Now, they are having second thoughts. There are widespread cries of alarm that America--a nation
founded by men steeped in philosophy and history--has evolved into a land of cultural illiterates. Waves of best
-selling books and scholarly reports are making the case that even as Americans go to school more, they come away knowing less."
Scharrer, Gary. "Bill would put course on Bible in all districts: Lawmaker says text is relevant to a moral society
." Houston Chronicle, 4 April 2007. HB 1287 (Chisum) says that all public schools in Texas are authorized to
offer an objective Bible course elective to students. The Supreme Court has ruled elective Bible courses in public schools as constitutional.
Schlafly, Phyllis. "Teaching History: Fact or Fiction?" August 2003.
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. "The Cult of Ethnicity, Good and Bad: A historian argues that multiculturalism threatens
the ideal that binds America." Time Magazine, 8 July 1991.
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Now Playing: "Old Glory"
by Gary Mule Deer and The Players
Song Information and Lyrics